Cultural anthropology suggests that human beings are constantly seeking for new psychoactive substances from plant preparations, isolated single compounds and now synthesize new drugs. One of the current emerging plant-based preparation is Kratom and its major alkaloid mitragynine which have been used as a recreational drug and ‘herbal high’ preparation in the Southeast Asia and Western countries due to its opium-and coca-like effects. Kratom leaves have been used for a long time as a medical cure and also for the effects of 'stimulant' among labour workers. Additionally, Kratom has been utilised as an alternative to opiates by opium users since the 19th century.
The usage of Kratom is thought to have some adverse effects, thus regulatory and medical authorities have been paying more attention to it recently. To date, the practise of Kratom's use among locals is seen to have no adverse effects. The overuse of Kratom by teenagers for its psychoactive effects today makes it difficult for many people to cease using it. Numerous studies have been conducted to understand how Kratom consumption affects both people and animals. Many scientific evidences have shown that kratom/mitragynine possess abuse liability with impaired cognitive function.
Recently, we reported that mitragynine impaired spatial learning and hippocampal synaptic transmission in rats. Alterations in synaptic transmission within the mesocorticolimbic and corticostriatal pathways, and changes in the transcriptional potential of cells are two important means by which drugs of abuse can induce lasting changes in behavior. Here, we investigated the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating neuroplasticity and histones modifications in Kratom-induced cognitive impairment. The significance of the findings provided an evidence on changes of histone in Kratom addictive rats appear to have a demonstrable negative impact on cognitive function.