Goal 10: Reduced Inequalities

Reduce inequality within and among countries

One person must not have fewer opportunities than another on the ground of gender, disability, sexual orientation, ethnic background or religion. That is the theory – in practice though things often look very different.

In many countries, entire sections of the population are marginalised or disadvantaged. Opportunities to participate in economic and societal life are often very unequally spread. Gulfs that separate rich and poor, privileged and disadvantaged, haves and have-nots, tear societies apart and foment conflicts. At international level, they encourage migration. But the people in our global village are linked in many ways and at many levels. All of us are at the mercy of global financial markets, although they are geared primarily to the interests of the wealthy. Developing countries in particular are exposed to many international processes which they are unable to influence and on which they cannot impose their own strategies.

What must be done?

Equality of opportunity and equitable distribution are the bases for peace and cooperation – both within societies and at global level. The top priority is thus to reduce poverty. Poorer countries must be able to better represent their own interests at international level, and must receive greater support. Migration – a consequence of worldwide inequality – must be better ordered and made more safe. Internally, states must abolish discriminatory laws and practices and protect disadvantaged sections of their population, for instance with the help of social safety nets and a fair taxation system. Economies must grow sustainably and society as a whole must benefit from prosperity.

Facts and figures

  • Income inequality increased by 11 per cent between 1990 and 2011 in developing countries.
  • In developing countries the risk that children will die before their fifth birthday is five times higher for the poorest 20 per cent of the population than for the richest 20 per cent.
  • Inequality is universal: poverty, racism and religious intolerance exists even in rich countries. 

10.1 Increase income for the poorest population

By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average

10.2 Self-determination and inclusion

By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

10.3 Equal opportunities

Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard 

10.4 Fair taxation, wages and social protection

Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality

10.5 Improve regulation of financial markets

Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations

10.6 Enhance voice for developing countries

Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions

10.7 Responsible migration policy

Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

10.a Differential treatment for developing countries

Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements

10.b Apply development aid appropriately

Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes

10.c Reduce transaction costs of foreign remittances

By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent

“There has been a significant increase in inequality over the past 20 years: Today, 10 percent of the world’s population own 90 percent of its wealth. In the face of these conditions, I have to ask: Is this going to work in the long term? This is not a foundation for a peaceful and sustainable world!”

Source: BMZ

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